Hogeschool van Amsterdam

Urban Vitality

Unmet needs in the management of Cervical Dystonia.


Cervical dystonia (CD) is a movement disorder which affects daily living of many patients. In clinical practice, several unmet treatment needs remain open. This article focuses on the four main aspects of treatment. We describe existing and emerging treatment approaches for CD, including botulinum toxin injections, surgical therapy, management of non-motor symptoms, and rehabilitation strategies. The unsolved issues regarding each of these treatments are identified and discussed, and possible future approaches and research lines are proposed.

Reference Contarino, M. F., Smit, M., van den Dool, J., Volkmann, J., & Tijssen, M. A. J. (2016). Unmet needs in the management of Cervical Dystonia. Frontiers in Neurology, 2016(7), [165]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2016.00165
28 September 2016

Publication date

Sep 2016


Maria Fiorella Contarino
Marenka Smit
Joost van den Dool
Jens Volkmann
Marina A.J. Tijssen


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