Predictive validity of kindergarten assessments on handwriting readiness


We investigated the predictive value of a new kindergarten assessment of handwriting readiness on handwriting performance in first grade as evaluated by the Systematic Screening for Handwriting Difficulties (Dutch abbreviation: SOS). The kindergarten assessment consisted of the Writing Readiness Inventory Tool In Context (WRITIC), the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery™VMI) and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT). The WRITIC evaluates in kindergarten children (aged 5-6 years) prewriting skills, the Beery™VMI and 9-HPT evaluate visual motor integration and fine-motor coordination, all elements important for handwriting readiness. In kindergarten, 109 children (55 boys; mean age 70 months, SD 4.8 months) were tested with the WRITIC, Beery™VMI and 9-HPT and one year later in first grade (mean age 85 months, SD 4.5 months) with the SOS. A multivariable linear mixed model was used to identify variables that independently predict outcomes in first grade (SOS): baseline scores on WRITIC-TP, Beery™VMI, 9-HPT, 'sustained attention,' 'gender,' 'age' and 'intervention' in the intermediate period. The results showed that WRITIC-TP, Beery™VMI, and 9-HPT, 'sustained attention,' 'gender' and 'intervention' had all predictive value on the handwriting outcome. Thereby WRITIC-TP was the main predictor for outcome of SOS-Quality, and Beery™VMI and 9-HPT were the main predictors of SOS-Speed. This kindergarten assessment of WRITIC-TP, Beery™VMI, and 9-HPT contributes to the detection of children at risk for developing handwriting problems.

Reference van Hartingsveldt, M. J., Cup, E. H. C., Hendriks, J. C. M., de Vries, L., de Groot, I. J. M., & Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M. W. G. (2015). Predictive validity of kindergarten assessments on handwriting readiness. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 36(January), 114-124.
1 January 2015

Publication date

Jan 2015


Edith H.C. Cup
Jan C.M. Hendriks
Liesbeth de Vries
Imelda J.M. de Groot
Maria W.G. Nijhuis-van der Sanden

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