Hogeschool van Amsterdam

AUAS Library

Citation Styles

To refer to sources you use a specific method, a reference style.

  • Most courses at the AUAS follow the APA style.
  • The AUAS Faculty of Health uses the Vancouver style.

There are also other guidelines and styles for mentioning the source. Ask your programme which style you should use.

What Is APA?

The APA Style was developed by the American Psychological Association (APA). It is the most important citation style for the social sciences and is also widely used in other disciplines.

At most AUAS Faculties the use of the APA Style for referencing sources is obligatory.

A new, 7th, edition of the APA guidelines was published in 2020. Dutch guidelines based on the new APA edition are available now as well: The APA Guidelines Explained: A practical guide to citation in higher education - 3rd revised edition.

Starting with the academic year 2021/2022, APA 7 will be applied by the AUAS library. For information about the Dutch guidelines please visit Dutch version of our website.

The AUAS Library provides an online course about using the APA style.

The course Searchlight APA will be adapted to APA 7 with effect from the academic year 2021/2022.

More information about the APA 7th edition guidelines

The official APA guidelines are available in the AUAS library:

APA 6

Are you still using APA 6?

The APA Style Blog 6th Edition Archive will remain available for some time.
The official publication manuals for the 6th edition are still available in the library.

What is Vancouver?

The Vancouver style is a numerical citation style, mostly used in medical literature. Each citation is given a number, following the order of the citations in the text: the first citation in your text is (1) and the second (2) and so on.

This style has a number of variations; you can use round brackets (1) for the in-text citations or square brackets [1], superscript1 and even combinations[1] - just be consequent throughout your text. Some Vancouver styles use the full title of the journal, others use an abbreviation instead.

If you’re not sure what version of the Vancouver style is most suitable, ask for guidance from your lecturers.

The Vancouver style in detail:

Published by  HvA Library 12 July 2021