Hogeschool van Amsterdam

AUAS Library

Citation Styles

To refer to sources you use a specific method, a reference style.

  • Most courses at the AUAS follow the APA style.
  • The AUAS Faculty of Health uses the Vancouver style.

There are also other guidelines and styles for mentioning the source. Ask your programme which style you should use.

What Is APA?

At most AUAS Faculties the use of the APA Style for referencing sources is obligatory. The APA Style was developed by the American Psychological Association (APA). It is the most important standard for the social sciences.

The APA guidelines

The official publication of the APA Style is in English. Some disciplines have ‘translated’ the guidelines to a style of their own and require the use of this version. Ask your lecturer which you are to use. There is no official Dutch version. See the website of the APA Style .

Online manuals

There is a Dutch manual, made by the Tilburg University.

See also: APA: differences English and Dutch [in Dutch].


What is Vancouver?

The Vancouver style is a numerical citation style, mostly used in medical literature. Each citation is given a number, following the order of the citations in the text: the first citation in your text is (1) and the second (2) and so on.

This style has a number of variations; you can use round brackets (1) for the in-text citations or square brackets [1], superscript1 and even combinations[1] - just be consequent throughout your text. Some Vancouver styles use the full title of the journal, others use an abbreviation instead.

If you’re not sure what version of the Vancouver style is most suitable, ask for guidance from your lecturers.

The Vancouver style in detail:

Published by  HvA Library 27 November 2020